Indian Nationalism Grows
Many Indians grew angry at British domination of
Indian life. Indian nationalism had been growing
since the mid-1800s. Some Indians joined the
Congress Party or the Muslim League. These were
two groups that worked toward independence
More than one million Indians served in the
British army in World War I. The British promised
to make changes to the government of India. These
changes would give the Indian people greater control of their own nation. After the war, though,
returning Indian soldiers were once again treated
as second-class citizens. Reforms were not made.
When Indians protested, the British Parliament
passed the Rowlatt Acts that allowed protesters to
be jailed without a trial. Western-educated Indians
believed this to be a violation of their rights.
About 10,000 Indians gathered at the city of
Amritsar to protest this act in the spring of 1919.
The British had also banned such public meetings.
But the crowd was mostly unaware of that fact.
British troops fired on the crowd. Several hundred
protesters were killed. The Amritsar Massacre
sparked further protests. Almost overnight millions
of Indians changed from loyal British subjects to
revolutionaries and nationalists.
Why did feelings of nationalism increase?
Gandhi's Tactics of Nonviolence; Great Britain Grants Limited Self-Rule
Mohandas K. Gandhi became the leader of
India's protest movement. He had attended law
school in England. He had a deeply religious
approach to political activity. His teachings contained ideas from all of the major religions of the
world, including Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.
Ghandi organized a campaign of noncooperation with the British. It was based on passive resistance, or civil disobedience, to unjust laws. He
asked Indians to stop buying British goods, attending British schools, paying British taxes, or voting
in British-run elections. He also persuaded his followers to take these actions while not using violence. British jails filled with thousands of Indians
who broke British laws in order to protest them.
Indians resented a British law that forced them
to buy salt only from the government. Gandhi
organized a huge march to the sea to make salt by
evaporating sea water. This action was called the
Soon afterward, some demonstrators planned
another march. They went to the place where the
British government made salt. They wanted to
close this site down. The British violently broke up
the march. A news story about the event was published everywhere. It helped Ghandi’s independence movement gain worldwide support. In 1935,
the British finally gave in. They passed a law that
allowed local Indian self-government.
What were Gandhi's ideas about nonviolence AND how did Indians use nonviolence to achieve their goals?
Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia
Other changes took place in Southwest Asia.
Mustafa Kemal, a military commander, led
nationalists in overthrowing the last Ottoman sultan. Kemal became the leader of a new republic in
Turkey. He took many steps to modernize society
and the economy in Turkey.
Before World War I, both Britain and Russia
had influence in the ancient country of Persia.
Britain tried to take control of all of Persia after the
war. This led to a nationalist revolt. In 1921, Reza
Shah Pahlavi, a Persian army officer, seized power.
He later changed his country's name to Iran. In
both Turkey and Iran, women gained new rights.
In Arabia, different groups united to form one
kingdom called Saudi Arabia.
Starting in the 1920s, Southwest Asia saw a
major economic change and development.
Western companies discovered large reserves of oil
in several countries in this area. Oil brought huge
sums of money to these countries. Western nations
tried to gain power in the region so they could get
some of this wealth.
Describe the political change in Southwest Asia.