I love a dog. He does nothing for political reasons. — Will Rogers

Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

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Indian Nationalism Grows

Many Indians grew angry at British domination of Indian life. Indian nationalism had been growing since the mid-1800s. Some Indians joined the Congress Party or the Muslim League. These were two groups that worked toward independence

More than one million Indians served in the British army in World War I. The British promised to make changes to the government of India. These changes would give the Indian people greater control of their own nation. After the war, though, returning Indian soldiers were once again treated as second-class citizens. Reforms were not made. When Indians protested, the British Parliament passed the Rowlatt Acts that allowed protesters to be jailed without a trial. Western-educated Indians believed this to be a violation of their rights.

About 10,000 Indians gathered at the city of Amritsar to protest this act in the spring of 1919. The British had also banned such public meetings. But the crowd was mostly unaware of that fact. British troops fired on the crowd. Several hundred protesters were killed. The Amritsar Massacre sparked further protests. Almost overnight millions of Indians changed from loyal British subjects to revolutionaries and nationalists.

Why did feelings of nationalism increase?
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Gandhi's Tactics of Nonviolence; Great Britain Grants Limited Self-Rule

Mohandas K. Gandhi became the leader of India's protest movement. He had attended law school in England. He had a deeply religious approach to political activity. His teachings contained ideas from all of the major religions of the world, including Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.

Ghandi organized a campaign of noncooperation with the British. It was based on passive resistance, or civil disobedience, to unjust laws. He asked Indians to stop buying British goods, attending British schools, paying British taxes, or voting in British-run elections. He also persuaded his followers to take these actions while not using violence. British jails filled with thousands of Indians who broke British laws in order to protest them.

Indians resented a British law that forced them to buy salt only from the government. Gandhi organized a huge march to the sea to make salt by evaporating sea water. This action was called the Salt March.

Soon afterward, some demonstrators planned another march. They went to the place where the British government made salt. They wanted to close this site down. The British violently broke up the march. A news story about the event was published everywhere. It helped Ghandi’s independence movement gain worldwide support. In 1935, the British finally gave in. They passed a law that allowed local Indian self-government.

What were Gandhi's ideas about nonviolence AND how did Indians use nonviolence to achieve their goals?
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Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia

Other changes took place in Southwest Asia. Mustafa Kemal, a military commander, led nationalists in overthrowing the last Ottoman sultan. Kemal became the leader of a new republic in Turkey. He took many steps to modernize society and the economy in Turkey.

Before World War I, both Britain and Russia had influence in the ancient country of Persia. Britain tried to take control of all of Persia after the war. This led to a nationalist revolt. In 1921, Reza Shah Pahlavi, a Persian army officer, seized power. He later changed his country's name to Iran. In both Turkey and Iran, women gained new rights.

In Arabia, different groups united to form one kingdom called Saudi Arabia. Starting in the 1920s, Southwest Asia saw a major economic change and development. Western companies discovered large reserves of oil in several countries in this area. Oil brought huge sums of money to these countries. Western nations tried to gain power in the region so they could get some of this wealth.

Describe the political change in Southwest Asia.
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